How do Human Beings Grow?
How do Humans grow from such small babies into big adults? This is thanks to a process we call mitosis. We are all made up of small living organisms called cells. These cells make up our hair, skin, nails, and all of our insides. When we are first conceived in the bellies of our mothers, we are called zygotes; This means we have only one cell. Inside this cell is all the information we need to grow into who we are today stored securely in genes. This cell is also where all of our cells come from! When we were a zygote, we went under the process of mitosis which made us into two cells, and then four and then eight, and so on. When a cell undergoes mitosis it creates two identical cells from one cell. The two cells that are produced are called daughter cells because they are exactly like the cell they are birthed from. It is through this process that we begin to grow continuously. It is also because of this process that things such as our hair and our nails grow. At any given time, thousands if not millions of cells inside of our body are undergoing mitosis and duplicating. Now that we have looked at what mitosis is and what it does for us we can dive deeper and investigate how these cells split. We must remember that each of our cells has 46 chromosomes. A chromosome is a component that holds genes which code for everything that makes us unique such as our hair color, height, and eye color. During the normal lifetime of the cell when it is not duplicating, known as interphase, these chromosomes are in a form called chromatid form. This means they are in their loose string material form not like the normal image we may imagine when we think of chromosomes. As the cell enters the M-phase it officially begins mitosis. Mitosis is split into 5 stages. The first stage is known as prophase and during this stage, the chromosomes condense into their chromosomal form and the nucleus of the cell is broken apart. Also during this stage, materials called mitosis spindles to begin to be produced and begin to attach to the chromosomes. During the second stage called metaphase, the chromosomes align at the middle of the cell pulled in the opposite direction by the mitotic spindle. This alignment is called the metaphase plate. In the following step called Anaphase, the chromosomes split in half and each half is pulled by the mitotic spindle to opposite sides of the cell-like reeling in fish with a fishing rod. Then comes Telophase where two nuclei (plural of nucleus) form on opposite sides of the cell and the middle of the cell begins to pinch. In the final phase called Anaphase, the cell is split through the middle producing the two daughter cells.
Parts of the Cell.
The cell is the fundamental unit of life. All living creatures are made up of cells. There are many types of cells inside the body but for the most part, they are similar. There are two main types of cells Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Humans and other organisms that are made up of more than one cell (multicellular) are made of Eukaryotes while organisms made of one cell (unicellular) are made of Prokaryotes. In this article, we will cover the basic parts of both Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells. The most important parts of Eukaryotic cells include the Nucleus, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus. The Nucleus can be seen as the command center for the cell. Inside the nucleus is all of the genetic information that tells the cell what to do, stored safely within the walls of the nuclear envelope. The nucleus is the main difference in Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells since Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus. The Mitochondria of the cell is in charge of producing ATP. ATP or Adenosine triphosphate is the energy currency of the cell and powers the cell acting as gas does for a car. This is why the Mitochondria is known as the powerhouse of the cell. Ribosomes in the cell are the protein manufacturers. They use the information stored inside the genes within the nucleus in order to make certain proteins. Ribosomes come in two types: free and fixed. The free Ribosomes are found in the cytoplasm, the liquid gel of the cell, while the fixed Ribosomes are attached to the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum. Once these proteins are created they often enter the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum where it is shaped and folded so it can perform its function properly. The reason this is called the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is because it appears to be “rough” due to the Ribosomes that are attached to it. The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum is the other part which manufactures lipids (fats) and hormones as well as detoxifying the cell and is called smooth because there are no Ribosomes attached to it. After exiting the rough Endoplasmic Reticulum, these proteins enter the Golgi Apparatus which tags the protein with “shipping labels” telling the cell where to send the proteins. This can be seen as the packaging center because it labels proteins and ships them off. All this material is enclosed in the boundaries of the cell which are called the cell membranes. As we stated before, the main difference between the Prokaryotic cell and the Eukaryotic cell is in the nucleus. While Eukaryotes have enclosed nuclei (plural of nucleus), Prokaryotic cells hold their genetic material (information) in the Nucleoid which does not have walls like the nucleus. Other than this, most of the Eukaryotic parts are also present in Prokaryotes.